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Proporcionalita a subsidiarita európskeho práva a otázky “nadregulácie" a “podregulácie"



1. Ing. Mgr. Ondrej Blažo, PhD. Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia
Téma: Smernica o verejnom obstarávaní a súťažné právo - skutočne zjednotení v rozmanitosti?
Abstrakt: Na prvý pohľad sa zdá, že európska úprava verejného obstarávania nespochybniteľne dláždi cestu pre vysokú úroveň hospodárskej súťaže v Európe. Avšak detailný pohľad na niektoré prvky Smernice o verejnom obstarávaní ukazuje, že tieto môžu oslabiť účinnosť uplatňovania súťažného práva. Vyvstáva tu teda otázka, či taká detailná regulácia verejného obstarávania je primeraná a potrebná na dosiahnutie cieľov Únie a či možno nájsť pre ňu dostatočný právny základ. Príspevok sa zameria hlavne na tri problematické okruhy: účasť podnikateľov z tej istej ekonomickej skupiny v jednom procese verejného obstarávania, diskvalifikácia z procesu verejného obstarávania z dôvodu účasti na karteli, atraktivita programu zhovievavosti.


2. Mgr. Tomáš Buchta PhD., LL.M. Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of the Slovak Republic, Slovakia
Téma: Podregulácia doplnená medzivládnym prístupom. Nový spôsob záchrany EÚ?
Abstrakt: Posledných päť rokov bolo obdobím pravidelných výziev v rôznych oblastiach EÚ, ako stabilita eura, vonkajšie vzťahy EÚ, voľný pohyb osôb atď. Niet preto divu, že reakcia EÚ niekedy zaostávala za príčinami týchto výziev. Aj v prípadoch kedy boli prijaté opatrenia na úrovni EÚ, boli vnímané len ako čiastočné (podregulácia). Avšak táto podregulácia nebola spôsobená absenciou politickej vôle zákonodarcov EÚ prijať príslušnú legislatívu, ale absenciou právomoci EÚ. Preto jediným spôsobom ako zaplniť túto medzeru bolo medzivládne opatrenie. Cieľom tohto príspevku je poukázať na tie prípady, keď bolo potrebné konanie EÚ, ale bolo nahradené na medzivládnym opatrením. Analýza sa taktiež zameria na možné dopady na právo EÚ v dôsledku medzivládnych opatrení, ako aj súdnym potvrdeniam týchto krokov.


3. Dr. Maria Cahill University College Cork, Ireland
Téma: Involving the National Courts in the Justiciability of Subsidiarity
Abstrakt: Despite persistent concerns about the weak justiciability of subsidiarity before the Court of Justice, there is no great political pressure lobbying for involvement of the national courts in this important task. Nor is there a groundswell of academic support for such an initiative, even as scholars praise the ever-increasing role of national parliaments in the monitoring of compliance with the principle subsidiarity. Could it be that we have overlooked an idea worth considering? This article will canvass the textual and institutional criticisms that comprise the structural weaknesses of the Court of Justice in its efforts to render subsidiarity justiciable and then argue that there are good reasons to involve national courts in the interpretation of subsidiarity: reasons which counter the structural weakness of the Court of Justice and reasons which are rooted in the meaning of subsidiarity itself.


4. Dr. Krzysztof Dobieżyński, PhD. The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland
Téma: Effectiveness of the selected procedures in trade mark law
Abstrakt: There is a belief that the procedures in trade mark law should be regulated by national law, but not by the EU law. Meanwhile, substantive law without proper procedural rules causes ineffectiveness of the trade mark system. There is no justified reason why the procedures in trade mark law should be regulated mainly by national law. Therefore, the EU law should regulate not only the substantive law, but also procedural rules in trade mark law. Owing to more intensive regulation by EU law in respect to procedures, the provisions of substantive law will be applied properly. In the paper, the selected procedures from Polish trade mark law will be discussed. On their example it will be shown that "under-regulation" in respect to procedures causes ineffectiveness of trade mark law.


5. Viera Gedrová Krajčová Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia
Téma: Daňová harmonizácia v Európskej únii, je vôbec reálna?
Abstrakt: Harmonizácia daní v Európskej únii je často opakovanou témou. Tento príspevok sa zameria na potrebu a rozsah harmonizácie daní v Európskej únii, a to na daň z príjmu právnických osôb. Jeho obsahom sú problémy, ktoré v procese harmonizácie vznikajú, potrebný rozsah harmonizácie a súvisiace otázky a problémy.


6. JUDr. Ondrej Hamuľák Ph.D. Právnická fakulta UP v Olomouci, Czech Republic
Téma: Ako husté je sito subsidiarity a proporcionality?
Abstrakt: Príspevok je zameraný na otázku prístupu súdnych orgánov (hlavne Súdneho dvora EÚ) k problematike podmienok a limitov uplatnenia princípov subsidiarity a proporcionality pri kontrole legality úniovej normotvorby. Príspevok poukazuje na faktickú neexistenciu súdneho testu subsidiarity a proporcionality, resp. jeho tendenčné ohýbanie uplatňovaním iných princípov práva EÚ, ako sú napríklad princíp jednotnosti, l'effet utile a pod.


7. Dr. PhD György Nádas - University of Debrecen Faculty of Law, Hungary
Téma: The legal nature of unpaid wage
Abstrakt: Within the frames of this paper we try to find some kind of solution for the following legal problem: what does the employee’s claim cover and on what legal title is it based in case the employer does not fulfil her/his main obligation of payment of wages properly. As a starting point we can state that one of the employer’s main obligations based on the employment relationship is payment of wages and this way the unpaid wage leads to breach of contract according to the contract law-like nature of employment relationship. Albeit with because of the special nature of labour law and its argued position in Hungarian legal system; and the personal performance the rules of private law cannot be applied fully in connection with breach of employment contract so this why labour law has unique and independent regulation. The unambiguous answer of private law in case of breach of contract is compensation law. But liability for damages appears in different forms in civil law and in labour law regulation. The most important question is the following: can the employer’s breach of contract based on unpaid wage be qualified as wrongdoing or is there another possibility for its legal qualification?


8. Dr. PhD Henriett Rab University of Debrecen, Hungary
Téma: Equal pay for equal work – theory or reality on the level of HRM?
Abstrakt: This paper deals with a current problem of employment, namely the legal framework and possibilities of the well-known principle of equal pay for equal work. But the approach seems to be different this time because we try to put this principle both in the context of human resource management (HRM) and labour law as well. We take into consideration two different viewpoints concerning pay in the system of labour law. Wage plays a two-sided role in this structure; on the one hand it is the manifestation of the fundamental social function of labour law and it is also a possible tool of increasing the employer’s efficiency on the other hand based on the parties’ freedom of contract. We try to analyse this question from both viewpoints focusing on equal pay as a possible tool in HRM to increase efficiency and competitiveness. But is it possible at all? Can this “balance” be reached somehow? Creation and evolution of human resource management aim the rise of efficiency of employment, which clearly mirrors the appearance of economic aspects in labour law. We think this special situation can be observed in the European Union nowadays with the changing labour law regulation.


9. JUDr. David Sehnálek Ph.D. Právnická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity, Czech Republic
Téma: Subsidiarita a evoluční přístup - jiná pespektiva
Abstrakt: Subsidiarita představuje jen jeden z možných určovatelů existence pravomoci Evropské unie. Zohledněna by ale měla být i další hlediska. Příspěvek bude zkoumat, do jaké míry lze evoluční principy v právu ztotožnit s principem subsidiariy.


10. Dr. PhD Péter Sipka - University of Debrecen Faculty of Law, Hungary
Téma: The legal nature of unpaid wage
Abstrakt: Within the frames of this paper we try to find some kind of solution for the following legal problem: what does the employee’s claim cover and on what legal title is it based in case the employer does not fulfil her/his main obligation of payment of wages properly. As a starting point we can state that one of the employer’s main obligations based on the employment relationship is payment of wages and this way the unpaid wage leads to breach of contract according to the contract law-like nature of employment relationship. Albeit with because of the special nature of labour law and its argued position in Hungarian legal system; and the personal performance the rules of private law cannot be applied fully in connection with breach of employment contract so this why labour law has unique and independent regulation. The unambiguous answer of private law in case of breach of contract is compensation law. But liability for damages appears in different forms in civil law and in labour law regulation. The most important question is the following: can the employer’s breach of contract based on unpaid wage be qualified as wrongdoing or is there another possibility for its legal qualification?


11. Dr. Edit Soós University of Szeged, Hungary
Téma: Monitoring the principle of subsidiarity in the EU legislation
Abstrakt: In 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon defined the Committee of the Regions’ (CoR) role as the defender of the principle of of subsidiarity. For the monitoring and ensuring compliance of EU proposals with the principle of subsidiarity the CoR created the subsidiarity monitoring system throughout the whole EU policy and law making process. The mechanisms for an ongoing subsidiarity control starting with subsidiarity monitoring in the pre-legislative phase, taking into account the findings of the Early Warning System and the contributions received through the Subsidiarity Monitoring Network, being reflected in the relevant CoR opinions. The CoR may bring an action before the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) on the grounds of infringement of the principle of subsidiarity by a legislative act. The overall objective of this strategy is for the CoR to become the point of reference in terms of subsidiarity within the EU, able to provide quality subsidiarity analyses mainly in its opinions. The paper reviews the CoR’s subsidiarity monitoring activities, particularly the annual Subsidiarity Work Programmes and the activity of the CoR's main tool, the Subsidiarity Monitoring Network.


12. JUDr. Zuzana Šabová Antimonopoly Office of the Slovak Republic, Slovakia
Téma: Regulácia reklamy v advokácii – ochrana verejného záujmu alebo obmedzovanie súťaže?
Abstrakt: Článok je venovaný osobitostiam odvetvia profesijných služieb a zameriava sa na vzťah regulácie a súťažného práva v tejto oblasti. Autorka stručne informuje o aktivitách Európskej Komisie, relevantných rozhodnutiach Komisie a Európskych súdov a v tomto kontexte porovnáva rozhodnutia Protimonopolného úradu SR a slovenských súdov v oblasti obmedzenia reklamy v advokácii. V tomto svetle komentuje aj nedávno zavedenú právnu úpravu, ktorá reguluje reklamu v tejto oblasti.


13. JUDr. Václav Šmejkal Ph.D. ŠKODA AUTO University, Czech Republic
Téma: Cíl sociálně tržní ekonomiky dle čl. 3 odst. 3 SEU – úkol pro právo EU?
Abstrakt: Lisabonskou smlouvou dostala Evropská unie úkol směřovat k vysoce konkurenceschopné sociálně tržní ekonomice s plnou zaměstnaností atd. Ani šest let od účinnosti Lisabonské smlouvy však není jasné, zda a jak má se EU může pustit do naplňování cíle sociálně tržní ekonomiky nástroji práva EU. Příspěvek proto usiluje o analýzu dvou spojených otázek: a) zda EU disponuje právními zmocněními k tomu, aby vybudovala sociálně tržní hospodářství, b) zda a jaké právní změny na úrovni EU by byly možné a žádoucí, aby došlo k posílení sociální dimenze EU a postupnému naplnění cíle sociálně tržní ekonomiky. Na první otázku dává příspěvek poměrně jasnou odpověď, že na základě analýzy stávajícího právního rámce EU a s přihlédnutím k možným definicím sociálně tržní ekonomiky, nemá nyní EU dostatek pravomocí k dosažení takového cíle. Na druhou otázku však odpovídá tak, že jistá, spíše dílčí opatření, přijatá zákonodárcem EU by byla žádoucí, aniž by vedla k ohrožení svobod jednotného trhu EU nebo k narušení stávajícího dělení pravomocí mezi EU a členskými státy v sociální oblasti.


14. prof. JUDr. Vladimír Týč CSc. Právnická fakulta MU, Czech Republic
Téma: EU secondary legislation not binding to all Member States: Shouldn't we prefer an international treaty between interested Members instead?
Abstrakt: In some cases, it is not possible to reach unanimity for the adoption of an act of secondary law, where the unanimity is required. There are dual standard solutions to such situations: 1. enhanced cooperation method eliminating Member States not interested in the proposed act or 2. non-participation of the refusing State on the basis of a general exemption granted to that State formerly on the primary law level. It seems that the method of international treaties (agreements) could be, for such situations, more appropriate. Those agreements would be reserved only to Member States. The possibility of making reservations would attract more (or may be all) Member States and the whole law-making mechanism would be simpler (no separate decision on the authorization of enhanced cooperation, no special additional agreements). It should be considered whether obligations of parties emerging from such agreements should be regarded as obligations under international law or under EU law.


15. Dr. Márton Leó Zaccaria, PhD. Debreceni Egyetem/University of Debrecen , Hungary
Téma: Equal pay for equal work – theory or reality on the level of HRM?
Abstrakt: This paper deals with a current problem of employment, namely the legal framework and possibilities of the well-known principle of equal pay for equal work. But the approach seems to be different this time because we try to put this principle both in the context of human resource management (HRM) and labour law as well. We take into consideration two different viewpoints concerning pay in the system of labour law. Wage plays a two-sided role in this structure; on the one hand it is the manifestation of the fundamental social function of labour law and it is also a possible tool of increasing the employer’s efficiency on the other hand based on the parties’ freedom of contract. We try to analyse this question from both viewpoints focusing on equal pay as a possible tool in HRM to increase efficiency and competitiveness. But is it possible at all? Can this “balance” be reached somehow? Creation and evolution of human resource management aim the rise of efficiency of employment, which clearly mirrors the appearance of economic aspects in labour law. We think this special situation can be observed in the European Union nowadays with the changing labour law regulation.



SpäťEqual pay for equal work – theory or reality on the level of HRM?

© Právnická fakulta Univerzity Komenského v Bratislave 2013, vytvoril Vojtech Budaváry